Appointment of Directors: Managing Director, Shareholders

Appointment of Directors

Appointment of Directors in company law is an essential topic for discussion in corporate governance and how the Director role differs from the Shareholder and the company. Directors’ responsibilities include:

  • Overseeing the management,
  • Custodian of corporate governance,
  • Assume multifaceted role within the organisation,
  • Making strategic decisions, and
  • Safeguarding the interests of various stakeholders. 
  • These individuals are entrusted with preserving the company’s assets, 
  • Fostering ethical conduct and 
  • Ensuring that the company operates in alignment with legal and regulatory requirements.

In India, the Companies Act 2013 delineates comprehensive provisions regarding the directors’ appointment, qualifications, disqualifications, and responsibilities.

Type of Directors:

A director can simultaneously be a director in multiple companies as approved by the respective company boards. 

  • Managing Director (MD): MD is a full-time director who is appointed by the Board of Directors to head all the other Directors and the company for the day-to-day affairs.
  • Executive Directors: Executive Directors are appointed to manage the company’s day-to-day operations and form a management team. Activities and functions like Sales, Finance, Operations, HR and many others are divided by giving employees Executive Director positions. They play a hands-on role in decision-making processes, implementing strategies, and overseeing various departments within the organisation.
  • Non-Executive Directors: Indirectly involved in the operation but with an independent and broader perspective of the daily operations. They act as independent evaluators of management decisions, ensuring alignment with the company’s long-term objectives.
  • Independent Directors: A director is appointed to give an independent view of the company without being influenced by the management. Generally, banks and financial institutions appoint experienced industry specialists to work as independent directors to protect their interests. 
  • All three types of Directors form a Board that approves all the company’s critical decisions.
  • The Director appointment procedure:
  • First Directors: Initially appointed by the subscribers to the memorandum or the Board of the company within 30 days from incorporation. 
  • Subsequent Appointments: These are done through shareholders’ approval at general meetings or through the Board of Directors’ resolutions for appointment by director board resolution
  • Retirement by Rotation: Some directors retire by rotation at annual general meetings, and reappointment is subject to shareholders’ approval.
  • Qualifications and Disqualifications:
  • Qualifications: Directors must possess prescribed qualifications, which vary based on the type of directorship.
  • Disqualifications: Individuals disqualified under specified circumstances, such as declared insolvency, conviction of an offence involving moral turpitude, etc., are ineligible for directorship.
  • Remuneration of Directors:
  • Fixed Remuneration: Directors may receive remuneration in the form of salaries, commissions, stock options or other benefits as approved by shareholders.
  • Independent Directors: They cannot be given stock options but can receive sitting fees for attending board/committee meetings.
  • Roles and Responsibilities:
  • Fiduciary Duties: Directors owe fiduciary duties like duty of care, loyalty, and duty to act in good faith in the company’s best interest.
  • Corporate Governance: Ensure compliance with laws, safeguard shareholders’ interests, and maintain transparency.
  • Strategic Decision Making: Engage in strategic planning, risk assessment, and ensuring sustainable growth. The creation of shareholder networth is the prime responsibility of the Directors.
  • Day-to-day business activities: The Company can also fix responsibilities for the day-to-day operations with the directors.

Compliance with the Companies Act:

The Companies Act 2013 mandates strict compliance regarding the appointment of directors to ensure transparency, accountability, and fair practices within the corporate framework. Some key compliances include:

  1. Director Identification Number (DIN): Every individual intending to be appointed as a director must obtain a unique DIN issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. DIN is quoted where necessary and represented by the Director. DIN is unique to the identity of the Director and can be used in more than one company. 
  2. Independent Directors: Companies must have a certain proportion of independent directors on their boards as per the Act, ensuring an unbiased perspective in decision-making.
  3. Board Meetings and Disclosures: Regular Board meetings should be held, and adequate disclosures regarding interests, shareholdings, etc., must be made by directors.
  4. Committee Appointments: Boards must constitute various committees like the Audit Committee, Nomination and Remuneration Committee, etc., and ensure the appointment of qualified members in accordance with the Act’s provisions.
  5. Minimum and maximum number of directors: Section 149(1) of the Companies Act allows a minimum of two, and there is a 15 limit for the maximum number of directors in the case of a Private limited company. For a Public limited company, it shall be three; for a One person company, it should be one.
  6. For foreign companies or foreign subsidiary companies, it is necessary to have one Indian Resident, and the other can be a foreign director.


The appointment of directors is a critical facet of corporate governance, shaping the direction and sustainability of a company. The Companies Act of 2013 establishes a robust framework that ensures a balance between the interests of various stakeholders while emphasising transparency, accountability, and ethical conduct in directorial appointments. Compliance with these provisions is a legal mandate and a means to foster trust, integrity, and long-term value creation within the corporate sphere. Companies that adhere to these guidelines benefit from the diverse expertise, strategic vision, and responsible leadership that directors bring, driving the company towards success and sustainable growth.

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